1. The Mamluks in Egypt
The only Muslim ruler to beat back the army Mongolia (Hulagukhan) is Mamalik soldier who was in power in Egypt under the leadership of Sulthan Baybars (1260-1277) as Sulthan's largest and famous as well regarded as the essential building Mamalik dynasty in Egypt. Mamalik dynasty came to power in 1250 AD Ayyubid dynasty replaces Al and ended in 1517 AD
Because it can dispel Hulagukhan army, Egyptian avoid destruction, as experienced in other Muslim world conquered by Hulagu.Dinasti Mamalik is progressing in various fields. His win against Mongolia army mengusai a capital base for the surrounding areas. Many rulers of small states loyal to the dynasty. Dynasty can also paralyze the Crusaders along the middle of the ocean. In the economic field, he opened trade relations with France and Italy, especially after the fall of Baghdad by Tamerlane soldiers, making Cairo to be a very important trade route linking the Red Sea and the Mediterranean to Europe. Agricultural output also meningkat.Di science, Egyptians are preventing scientists from army attacks Baghdad native Mongolia. Therefore many sciences flourish in Egypt, such as history, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and religion.
In the recorded history of the science of big names, such as Ibn Khalikan, Ibn Taghribardi, and Ibn Khaldun. In the field of astronomy known name of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. In the field of mathematics Abu al Faraj al - 'Ibry. In the field of medicine: Abu Hasan 'Ali al-Nafis inventor composition and blood circulation in the human lung, Abdul Mun'im al-Dimyathi a veterinarian, and Al-Razi, a pioneer psykoterapi. Opthalmologi known name in the field of Salah al-Din Yusuf Ibn. While in the field of religion, famous name Ibn Taymiyyah, a reformist thinkers in Islam, al Sayuthi which controls many religious sciences, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in the Science of Hadith and others. Demikain midwife also in architecture.
They built magnificent buildings such as schools, mosques, hospitals, museums, libraries, villas, domes and minarets masjid.Kerajaan Mamalik ended in 1517 because of too many low moral panguasa, pleasure-loving and coupled with the advent of drought and disease outbreaks. On the other hand the emergence of new powers, the Ottoman empire which kemudia can win the war against the army Mamalik. Then Egypt is used as one of the main provinces of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey.
In medieval Islam only authority in the region of Granada, under Bani Ahmar dynasty (1232-1492 AD) which is the last Muslim power in Spain seteleh roughly 7 and a half century old master this region. Other cities like Cordova had fallen into the hands of Christians in the year 1238 AD, Sevilla separated in 1248 and finally Granada also fell into Christian hands in 1492 AD It is caused due to a split among Muslims, especially those in the palace for power. On the other hand managed to unite Christians. Abu Abdullah as last khalipah could no longer stem the attacks on Christianity led by Ferdinand and Isabella, and eventually he gave himself, and he himself fled to northern Africa. So ended Muslim rule in Spain. Muslims after that, faced with two choices, get Christianity or leave Spain. In 1609 M. arguably no more Muslims in this area.
The Islamic world devastated after Khalipah Abbasid Bghdad collapsed, and only returned after the progress and development of the three kingdoms emerged, namely: Ottoman Turkey, Mughal India and Safavid Persia.
KINGDOM OF (1500-1800 AD)
1. Ottoman Empire
The founder of this kingdom called Usmani, a tribe of Oghuz Turks. He expressed himself as Padisyah al Usmani (Ottoman royal families) in 699 H (1300 AD). In 1312 AD he attacked the city in the Byzantine Broessa which then serve as the capital of his kingdom. A few years later the Ottomans conquered most of continental Europe as Azmir (Smyrna) in 1327, Thawasyanli year 1330, Uskandar in 1338, Ankara in 1354, and Gallipoli in 1356.Pada during Sultan Murad I (1359-1389) Ottoman Adrianople can master that then become the new capital, and also conquered Macedonia, Sopia, Salonia and the entire northern region of Greece.
Feeling anxious about the progress of the kingdom's expansion into Europe, the Pope waged war spirit. A large number of European allies prepared to repulse the Ottoman army. The force is led by Sijisman, Hungarian king. But Sultan Bayazid I (1389-1403 AD), the successor Murad I, could destroy the European Christian allies.
Sultan Bayazid I just love these attacks can be defeated by Tamerlane soldiers in a battle in Ankara in 1402 and was himself taken prisoner musuh.Dengan ditawannya Bayazid I was Ottoman Empire in decline, until diselematkan back by his son Muhammad, and followed by Murad II (1421 - 1451) and by Muhammad II (1451-1481), known as Muhammad Al Fatih. In the reign of Muhammad al-Fatih, the Byzantines and conquered Constantinople (1453 AD). Ottoman Empire has established its position in the Sulaiman al Qanuni (1520-1566 AD), so that in his time the Ottoman territory covering Asia Minor, Armenia, Iraq, Syrian, Hejaz, and Yemen in Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunis and of Islamist Africa; Bulgaria, Greece, Yugaslapia, Albania, Hungary, and Romania in Europe. To set the state government drafted a law book (qanun), named Multaqa al-Abhur, the grip of law for the Ottoman Empire until the advent of reforms in the 19th century.
That is why the Sultan Sulaiman was given the title of "al Qanuni." In construction, the Ottoman Empire was more mempokuskan the political, military, and architecture. Political point is the expansion of the area as above. Military field is terbentunhya new military group called Jenissari or Inkisyariah forces. These forces can alter the Ottoman State into the most powerful war machine. Field Mass architects built many magnificent buildings, such as schools, hospitals, villas, tombs, bridges and mosques. The mosques are decorated with beautiful calligraphy, such as the famous Jami mosque Sultan Muhammad Al Fatih, sulaiman Great Mosque, Masjid Abu ayub Al Ansari and Masjid Aya Sopia gEreja.Dalam building originally was the religious field, considerable attention sultan. Patwa-Patwa cleric was instrumental in taking the policy of the State. Mufti is the highest religious official, gave an official fatwa against religious problems in society. Without legitimacy Mufti, the kingdom verdict may not berjalan.Selama approximately 9 Usamani century empire stands, but later also destroyed due to several factors including:
a. Culture illegal
Each position was achieved by a person wishing to be "paid" to the person entitled dengansogokan provide position, sehinggamenyebabkan moral decadence and officials increasingly fragile condition.
b. Jenissari army mutiny
Progress Ottoman empire expansion is also due to the large role of the army Jenissari. So it is conceivable that the army itself Jenissari eventually rebel against the government.
c. Economic slump
This is due to war, spending money, and the state's economy plunged, while huge state spending, including war costs.
d. Vast territory
Too extent of Ottoman territory very difficult for other dikontrol.Dipihak, very ambitious rulers controlled a vast area, so that they are constantly at war with various nations. This would suck a lot of potential that should be used to build the State.
e. Weakness ruler
After the death of al-Qanuni Sulaimanal, the Ottoman Empire ruled by sultans were weak, especially in the field of leadership. Eventually the government into chaos.
Ottoman Empire shaped empire which had its capital in Istanbul, Turkey. Coming from nomadic tribes living in Central Asia, one tribe Kayi. Usman titled "Al-Usman Pedisyah", under the leadership of the vast territory of the empire by conquering several areas, such as Azmir (1327 AD), Tharasyanli (1356 AD), Alexander (1338 AD), Ankara (1354 AD), and Galipoli (1356 M ). In the reign of Muhammad Al-Fatih Ottoman Empire suffered heyday, and thus conquered territories Byzantum and Constantinople (1453 AD).
a) Government and Military
The highest level is held by the Sultan, the second level or Sadrazan prime minister, governor or third tier Pasha, the fourth level of regents or As-sawaziq or Al-Alawiyah. System of government and its military power running well. Appears military elite called janissary or inkrisyriyah during Orkhan bin Usman, this group is a group of non-Muslim land destroyer.
b) Knowledge and Culture
Acculturation occurs from several countries along with the expansion of the area, the culture of Persia, Byzantium, and the Arab. People Usmani take tat teachings on ethics and etiquette of the Persian culture, and military organization of Byzantum, and knowledge of Arabic architecture. From the science of architecture, the mosque stands a good variety and beautiful calligraphy.
Congregation came two streams, namely Bektsyi much influence in military, and Maulawiyah a lot of influence in the government officials.
2. Royal Safavid Persia
Forerunners of the kingdom is actually derived from the association study tasauf Safavid congregation based in the city of Ardabil, Azerbaijan. Safavid name is taken from the name of its founder Safi al-Din, a descendant of the sixth Shiite imam, Musa al-Kazim. Kingdom can be considered as first laid the basis of the formation of the State of Iran today. The movement of this order are gradually transformed into a political movement. Jama'ah or his students turned into a regular army and panatik in trust and against any person other than Shiite bermazhab. Sapawi leadership succession, and increasingly exist as a political movement backed by a strong army called Qizilbash ( red beret) in the leadership of Ismail (1501-1524 AD).
It was he who first proclaimed himself the first king of the Safavid dynasty in the city of Tabriz. In ten years he has been able to conquer the whole Persian and eastern fertile crescent B ulan (Fortile Crescent). Kingdom progress Safavid peak during the reign of Abbas I. During his reign can master beberpa Ottoman dominated areas such as Tabriz, Sirwan, and Baghdad (1602 AD).
Then in 1622 AD can master Hurmuz islands, and changing the port to the port of Bandar Abbas Gumrun, so trade routes between East and West commonly contested by the Dutch, British, and French can dikusainya.Kemajuan Sapawi not only politics but also in the fields of science , At the time of birth a few scientists among others Bahauddin al Syaeraji, generalist knowledge, Sadaruddin al Syaeroji, a philosopher, and Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Baqir Damad, a filosop, historian, theologian, and a man who once held obesrvasi about the life and physical lebah.Bidang art, the Safavid rulers have managed to build Isfahan, the capital of the kingdom became a very beautiful city.
Also built mosques, hospitals-hospitals, schools, above the giant bridge zende Rud, and the palace Chihil Sutun. Visible elements of art as well as in the form of crafts such as ceramics, carpets, clothing and weaving, fashion, pottery and other lain.Sepeninggal Abbas I of Safavid royal succession was ruled by six kings, namely Safi Mirza (1628-1642), Abbas II (1642-1667), Solomon (1667-1694), Hussein (1694-1722), Tahmasp II (1722-1732), and Abbas III (1733-1736). At the time of the kings of the Safavid empire condition progressively decline that eventually led to its demise. Safi Mirza was a jealous and cruel to the royal princes. Abbas II was a king who likes to get drunk liquor. Solomon other than drug addicts also enjoys nightlife and its harem herem nya.Sedangkan Hussein was a king who was very discriminatory, too sided with the Shi'ites and the Cruel against followers Sunni.Itulah including the Safavid Empire collapse factor. Another factor is the prolonged konplik the Ottoman Empire, moral decadence among the chief pembesart kingdom, and also konplik interen among them in order to seize power.
In the reign of Shah Abbas (1588-1629) Safavid Empire had golden peak. Not only reduce internal conflicts and seize territory to escape, but Shah Abbas also able to expand its territory to Tabriz, Sirwan, and kep.Harmuz, even the port of Bandar Abbas. Shah Abbas wanted to break away from dependence on military force Qizilbasy support, so he formed a military force composed of slaves Caucasus and Georgia. This strategy successfully expel Uzbek forces in Khirazan in 1598.
a) Government and Politics
Horozontal divided, which is based on tribal or regional lines, and vertical division, which includes two types, court (dargah) and the secretariat of state (divan or mamalik). State administration entrusted to the amir (chieftain) upper level and viziers (ministers) who are members of the council (Jangi). There are institutions covered by the council (council nivis) consisting of historians palace, the Shah's private secretary and head of intelligence.
Economics is controlled directly by the center. Many strengthening in agriculture with emphasis on the transfer of state land to the land of the king. Economic growth due to the better stability and dynamic security situation in the country under control. Port of Bandar Abbas became trade routes between East and West so that the trade is moving forward. Progress in agriculture, especially in the fertile Crescent.
Educational institutions established by Shah Abbas Shia, the theological school to consolidate Shia will flow. Some of the names of scientists, writers, and historians Safavid among others, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Juba'i Amili, Muhammad Baqir Astarabadi, Sarudin Muhammad bin Ibrahim Shirazi and Muhammad Baqir Majlisi.
d) Building and Arts
Offices, mosques, hospitals, and giant bridges built in the style architecture. In the field of art, visible in the activities and results of handicrafts, ceramics, carpets, and painting.
3. Mughal empire in India
Mughal kingdom located in India and Delhi as the capital. Standing quarter-century after the founding of the Safavid empire. Founded by Zahiruddin Babur (1482-1530 AD), one of the main of Tamerlane's grandson. He was determined to master the Samarkhan important city in Central Asia at the time. Then in 1494 he managed to conquer the help of the king of Ismail I, Safavid king. In the year 1504 AD he also conquered Kabul, capital of Afghanistan. Hindu kingdoms in India can also be ditaklukkannya.Babur died of in 1530 AD diagnti by his son Humayun. (1530-1556 AD) can combine Malwa and Gujarat to areas that have been mastered. Humayun died in a fall on the steps of the library (1556 AD), was replaced by his son, Akbar.Akbar (1556-1606 AD) to conquer the Indian kings were still there at the time, and also Bengal. In the matter of religion, Akbar has libral opinion and want to unite all religions in one form a new religion called Din Divine. Akbar also apply Sulakhul politics (tolerance Universal), sehingg considers all people equally, not discriminated against because of ethnic and religious differences. Great sultans after Akbar among others Jehangir (1605-1627 AD) and Empress Nur Jehan, Shah Jehan (1628-1658 AD) and Aurangzeb (1659-1707 AD).
After Aurangzeb was weak sultans who could not sustain the progress MughalBeberapa royal Mughal empire, among others in the field of agriculture, in the form of whole grains, rice, beans, sugar cane, vegetables, spices, tobacco, cotton, indigo, and materials- celupan.Hasil materials royal Mughal art which can still be admired today are works of beautiful architecture and amazing buildings such as mosques encrusted pearls, and Tajmahal in Agra, Delhi and the Palace of the Grand Mosque in Lahore.Selain wonderful progress achieved by the Mughal empire, there are several factors that led to its demise weakness in tahun1858 include:
a. Stagnation in military development that can not be memantaugerak move British troops in the coastal regions. Similarly, the less reliable its land kekuatanpasukan, teruatama in mengoperasikapersenjataan homemade.
b. Moral decadence and luxury living among royal princes yangmengakibatkan extravagance in the use of money.
c. Too rough attitude Aurangzeb in implementing ideas that cause konplik between religions, such as flow Syikh, Syi'ahdan Sunni.
d. All the heir to the throne in the latter half of Mughal power are the ones who are weak in the areas of leadership