The reign of the first four caliphs ended with the killing of Ali ibn Abi Talib. Support groups raised Hasan Ali bin Ali to become caliph. Support groups raised Mu'awiyah Mu'awiyah bin Abu Sufyan.
As Caliph Mu'awiya Hasan handed power to that held by the Umayyad caliphate to Mu'awiya died later after, the government will be returned to the Muslims. However, this agreement was never realized, and the appointment as caliph Mu'awiyah stood the kingdom of the Umayyads. The founder of the Umayyad Empire was Mu'awiya ibn abu Sufyan.
Umayyad name is the name of the grandfather both named Umayya ibn Mu'awiya Abdus Sham. Umayyad Empire succession by descent. This is different from the time the first four caliphs directly elected people.
Travel Umayyad Empire
Daula Umayyad Caliphate took office for two terms, in Syria nearly a century since H 30-132 or 660-750 AD and in Spain for 275 years, ie 756-1031 AD Expansion of the Islamic empire during the Umayyad Daula had entered the European continent has even reached the Byzantine territory.
In the reign of Mu'awiyah made various changes in government. Given the range of its practice that was once the governor of Sham, Mu'awiyah make a change of government, the department of transportation form (postal service) and the registration office. As Caliph Mu'awiya positions for nearly 20 years.
The Umayyad caliph at the time, among other things:
a. Mu'awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan
b. Yazid bin Mu'awiyah
c. Mu'awiyah binYazid
d. Marwan bin Hakam
e. Abdul Malik bin Marwan
f. Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik
g. Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik
h. Umar bin Abdul Aziz
i. Yazid bin Abdul Malik
j. Hisham bin Abdul Malik
After the death of Mu'awiyah, the government held by Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah. During his reign, the principle of consultation that has been declared by the Prophet and the first four caliphs began to shift to a form of absolute monarchy.
That is, the leader is the king who appointed hereditary. However, kings were still using the title caliph. Yazid reign marked by political upheavals. This further heightened after the killing of the Prophet Muhammad's grandson, Husayn ibn Ali is.
After Yazid's death, the government replaced by Mu'awiyah II. However, Mu'awiyah II was not able to rule and gave leadership to Marwan bin Hakam. However, Marwan only ruled for 9 months and resigned because he could not face the political upheaval going on, until finally the atmosphere monarchy was restored after Abdul Malik bin Marwan became caliph.
Umayyads heyday began when Abdul Malik bin Marwan commanding 66-86 H Or 685-705 M. Various advances made Abdul Malik, among others:
a. Setting Arabic as the official language.
b. Hall founded the healthcare for the people.
c. Establishing Mosque in Damascus.
Umayyad kingdom of glory more prominent after being ordered Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik, the year 705-715 86-96 H or M. At the time, the Umayyad empire capable of expanding Islamic empire to India, North Africa, to Morocco and Andalusia. In this period of Islamic expansion includes the following areas:
a. Territory of the Roman Empire in Asia Minor includes the capital city of Constantinople, and expanding to several islands in the Mediterranean Sea.
b. North Africa to the Atlantic coast and across the strait pull Jabal (Straits of Gibraltar).
c. Eastern Region, Northern across the river Jihun (Amru Daria).
When the power is in the hands of Islamic Umayyad empire, the art of building, for example Qubatus Sarkah building in Jerusalem and building in the Medina Mosque Nabawiyah can reach heights beyond waking Gothic art in Europe. Meanwhile, the science did not miss. For example, the fields of medicine, philosophy, chemistry, astronomy, geometry and develops very rapidly.
Collapse of the Umayyad Empire
Umayyads heyday began to decline. There are several weaknesses that became gloomy power of the Umayyads, among them:
a. Starting loss Islamic unity nurtured since the time of the Prophet.
b. People began to attach importance to the world and ignore the religious affairs
c. The disappearance of Islamic democracy and the beginning of the use of absolute monarchy
d. The existence of the tribe Hawarij insurgency, Shiite and Bani Abbas.
Last Caliph of the Umayyad named Marwan bin Muhammad. He was no longer able to confront the resistance of Bani Abbas. On August 5, 750 AD, Muhammad ibn Marwan was killed by Salih Bin Ali.
The spread of Islam in the Umayyad Caliphate covers an area of ??Asia Minor, the Roman Empire (Constantinople), North Asia to the Spanish territory, and the Strait of Jabal Tarik, reaching Central Asia to the borders of China (China).
It is important during the Umayyad, namely:
a. Setting Arabic as the official language;
b. Establishing the Great Mosque in Damascus;
c. Making currency bearing sentences creed;
d. Founded the hospital in different areas;
e. Perfecting government regulations;
f. Perform bookkeeping Hadith of the Prophet
During the Umayyad Daula cultural development progress and also the arts, particularly the art of language, sound art, fine art, and the art of building (architecture).
1. Language Arts
Language arts progress is closely associated with the development of language. While the language of progress following the progress of the nation. During the Umayyad Daula Muslims have made progress in different fields, namely political, economic, social, and science. By itself is exposed to the vocabulary words and new terms are not present in previous times.
City of Basra and Kufa at that time was the center of the development of science and literature (adab). In both cities the Muslim Arab people exchange ideas in scientific discussions with the people of the nation that has progressed first. In the city are also many Muslims who are actively preparing and pouring their work in various fields of science. So thus the developing science of grammar (Science Nahwu and sharaf) and Science balaghah, and many are born-born famous poets.
2. Fine arts
Fine art that developed in the days of the Umayyad Daula was carving, sculpture, as well as the time of onset, rapidly evolving sculpture at that time is the use of Arabic handwriting (calligraphy) as a motif carvings.
The famous and advanced carving on the wall is the wall. Many of Al-Qur'an, Hadith of the Prophet and a summary poem on chisel and carved on the walls of the mosque walls, palaces and buildings.
3. Sound Art
The development of sound art during the reign of the Umayyads Daulat most important thing is Qira'atul Qur'an, Qasidah, Music and other songs on the theme of love.
4. Art Building (Architecture)
Art or Architecture building during the reign of the Umayyad Daula in general is still centered on the art of civic buildings, such as the building of Damascus, Kairuwan cities, the city of Al-Zahra. The art of religious buildings such as building mosques and mosque Kairuwan Damascus, as well as the art building located on fortifications time.
The advances in science, the development done by giving encouragement or motivation of the caliphs. The caliph as giving gifts is large enough for the scholars, scientists and artists who excel in the fields of science and culture, and for the sake of science was provided by the state budget, which is why science developed rapidly.
Knowledge dissemination center at that time there were in the mosques. In mosques to learn that there are groups with each teacher who teaches religion and science general knowledge of religion that developed at that time, among others is, science qira'at, Tafsir, Hadith, Fiqh, Nahwu, Balaqhah and others. Tafsir at the time was not yet experiencing rapid development, as happened in the reign of the Abbasid Daula. Interpretations developed from oral to oral until finally written. Of the first interpreters of the day is to Ibn Abbas, one of the companions of the Prophet who were also famous Prophet's uncle.
For the development of the science of Hadith itself occurred after it was discovered many irregularities and fraud in the hadith narrated or having known many false hadiths made by certain groups for political purposes.
That's why feel the need to compile a book of hadith. Among the experts Hadith (Muhaddits) famous period was Muhammad ibn Shihab A-Zuhri, he is also the first formulate the science of hadith and first recorded words, deeds, accuracy or properties Prophet called hadith .