~The Beginning of Islamic Civilization in the World~Did you know about the Origins of Islam in world history and the history of the inclusion of Islam in Indonesia? On this occasion awalmula.com will share information to increase our knowledge of the history of religions, especially Islam. Because the study of history is important as the word of Allah in the holy book the Koran verse 111 which means "to study history are ibrah (lessons). Why is that? Because by studying past history, we can take the lessons for the future as planning or concept better. And of course we all know the hadith of the Messenger of Allah SWT that read "Today should be better than yesterday and tomorrow should be better than today". For that let us always learning histories that exist in the world as the concept of a better life.
Minutes of Islam followed by the Prophet Muhammad in the Arabian peninsula in the 7th century AD when the Prophet Muhammad received revelations from Allah swt. After the death of Rasullullah s.a.w. Islamic empire expanded to the Atlantic Ocean in the East and Central Asia.
However, the emergence of Islamic kingdoms such as the kingdoms Umayyad, Abbasid, Seljuk Turks, and the Ottoman Caliphate, Mughal Empire, India, and the Sultanate of Melaka has become a big crown in the world. Many science experts, philosophers and so emerged from Islamic countries, especially the Islamic Golden Age. Because many of the Islamic empire that made him the school.
In the 18th century and 19th century AD, many Islamic regions fell into the hands of Europe. After World War I, the Ottoman Empire, the last Muslim empire collapsed.
Arabian Peninsula before Islam is a region that is passed by the silk route. Kebanyakkan a pagan Arabs and some are followers of Christianity and Judaism. Mecca is a holy place for the Arabs when it karana are their idols and Ponds Zamzam and the most important and established the Ka'bah and its Prophet Ibrahim Ismail.
Prophet Muhammad. born in Mecca in the year 570 AD the elephant. He is an orphan after her parents died. Muhammad eventually raised by his uncle, Abu Talib. Siti Khadijah Muhammad married and lead a happy life.
However, when the Prophet Muhammad. 40 years old, he was visited by the Angel Gabriel After some time Muhammad Islam teaches privately to his associates, who are known as "as-Sabiqun al-Awwalun (The first people who embraced Islam)" and so openly to the entire population Mecca.
In 622 AD, Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina. This event is called the Hijrah. Other events that occur after the Hijrah calendar is the creation Hijirah.
Residents of Mecca and Medina in the war with the Prophet Muhammad. with good results although there among the Muslims who were killed. Eventually the Muslims became more powerful, and conquered Mecca. After the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. died, the entire Arabian Peninsula under Islamic control.
History of Islam in Indoonesia entry:
1. The first round, seventh century BC (1st century of Hijra).
In the seventh century AD, Islam had come to the archipelago. The Dai who came to Indonesia from the Arabian peninsula that has been adapted to the Indian nation the nation's Gujarat and there is also adapted to the Chinese nation, from every direction of the silk route (trade routes) mission began reaching the coast-coast archipelago.
Since the beginning of Islam never discriminate against a person's function to act as propagators (preachers). The obligation of preaching in Islam is not only caste (class) specific course but for every community in Islam. While in other religions that only certain groups have authority to spread the religion, namely pastor. Appropriate expression of Imam Shahid Hasan Al-Bana "Nahnu du'at qabla kulla syai" means that we are dai before other professions.
Missionary arriving in Indonesia through its sailors or traders carrying their goods also bring Islamic morality and introduce Islamic values. Islamic Society when berbenalan with an open mind, and was honored as a man that differentiates the entry of another religion after or before the advent of Islam. For example, the entry of Christianity into Indonesia coincided with Gold (gold or wealth) and glory (glory or power) in addition to the spread of the Gospel which is the motive of religion coincided with colonization and power. While Islam by peaceful means.
That Islam first spread in the archipelago, from Muslim communities in coastal regions developed into port cities and trading and growing until it becomes Islamic kingdoms ranging from Aceh to Ternata and Tidore which is the center of the kingdom Eastern Indonesia the territory up to Irian Jaya.
2. The second half, 13th century BC.
In the 13th century AD stood Islamic kingdoms in various parts of the archipelago. Which is the moment of awakening political forces people especially in areas of Java when Majapahit kingdom was gradually dropped his authority because of internal conflicts. This is used by the foster Kalijaga Sunan in the region with Raden Fatah be an offspring of the kings of Majapahit to establish the first Islamic kingdom in Java, namely the kingdom of Demak. Simultaneously it is also emerging Islamic kingdoms others, although still localized.
In the 13th century AD there fenoma called the Wali Songo ie scholars who spread propaganda in Indonesia. Wali Songo develop proselytizing or Islamization process through the channels:
c) Education (schools)
School is the original institution of the Indonesian cultural roots, as well as the adoption and adaptation of pre-Islamic culture hasanah not out of the Islamic values that can be utilized in the spread of Islam. This proves Islam is very appreciative of local cultures do not conflict with Islamic values.
d) Art and culture
At that time the media spectacle that is very well known in the Java community kkhususnya the puppet. Wali Songo using puppets as a medium of propaganda with puppet before coloring it with Islamic values. That characterize the influence of Islam in the puppet teaches egaliterialisme that human equality before God, with the inclusion of figures such as Semar punakawam, Gareng, Petruk and Bagong.
The mayor also composed traditional songs (regions) in the Islamic style, this means nasyid already exist in Indonesia since the era of the trustees. In ceremonies were also given the values of Islam.
Historical facts that there tarikat-tarikat in Indonesia, which became the network spread of Islam.
3. The third round, the Dutch colonial period.
In the 17th century, precisely in 1601 BC came the Dutch East Indies empire stricken archipelago that initially only trade but eventually colonize. Dutch came to Indonesia with the VOC trading room, semejak was almost all over the archipelago was colonized by the Dutch East Indies except Aceh. At that between Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago have not had time to form an alliance or cooperation. This causes the spread of propaganda was interrupted.
With sumuliayatul (perfection) of Islam there is no separation between certain aspects of life with others, has been applied by the scholars at that time. When colonialism came, changed boarding schools became the headquarters of the struggle, students-students (learners boarding schools) to Jundullah (God's soldiers) ready to fight the invaders, while the commander of the war clerical. Almost all regions in Indonesia to fight against the invaders are the Muslims and their clerical.
Potential to grow and develop in the 13th century into the power of resistance against the invaders. This can be evidenced by the stories of the future Islamic kingdoms that his verse poem-containing struggle. Scholars inflame the Jihad against the infidels is Dutch. Dutch had finally overwhelmed using these strategies:
• Political divide et impera, which in fact divisive pitting of strength or the traditional Ulama example Padri war in West Sumatra and Java Diponegoro war.
• Bring Prof. Dr. Cristian Snouk Hourgonye alias Abdul Gafar a professor at the University of East Indies keindonesiaan also an orientalist who had studied Islam in Mecca, he argues that the Dutch government allowed Muslims to worship only mahdhoh (special) and forbidden to speak or to perform practical politics. The idea was undertaken by the government of the Netherlands and one of them is a limitation of the Muslims who will perform Hajj because that's when the struggle against colonialism maturation occurs.
4. Fourth round, 20th century BC
Early 20th century AD, the Dutch started to political ethics or political reciprocation which is actually just create a layer of society that can help them in government in Indonesia. Political reciprocation provide education and employment to the people of Indonesia, especially Muslims but actually aim to mensosialkan sciences far west of Al-Quran and Hadith and will maketh dolls invaders. It is also preparing for the layers of bureaucracy that can not be hold by another by the Dutch. That gets pendidikanpun not all classes of society but only Priyayi (nobility), because that's what leaders are berasalkan ¬ movement leaders of the nobility.
The strategy of resistance against the invaders in this period to be more formal organization than with guns. Stand United Islamic organization is the organization's first national movement in Indonesia in 1905 that have a member of the aristocracy and the common people to cover a wide area. Budi Utomo stand in 1908 which is still a regionalism that is Java, because it can be called an organization of Islamic States first national movement than Budi Utomo.
Famous leaders of Islamic States that HOS Tjokroaminoto who led the organization at the age of 25, a young gentleman who adhere to Islam because it is driven so that only a commoner. He worked as a sugar factory worker. He was a major inspiration for the national movement in Indonesia. Islamic States under his leadership became a force to be reckoned Netherlands. Eminent Islamic States is H. Agus Salim and Abdul Muis, a foster youth who are members of Young Bound Islamitend a national, growing up in youth vows in 1928.
Propagation of Islam in Indonesia continues to grow in institutions such as the birth Nadhatul Ulama, Muhammadiyah, Persis, and others. Institutions to Islamization is incorporated in MIAI (Islamic Assembly 'Ala Indonesia) which later changed its name to Masyumi (Indonesia Muslim Shura Council), whose members are the heads of institutions to the Islamization.
In the Japanese occupation, made a strategy to divide the unity of the power of the people by the government of Japan to form a ministry Sumubu (Department of Religion). Japan continued the Dutch strategy against Muslims. There was a Japanese who is familiar with Islam, namely Colonel Huri, he cut coordination clerics at the center of the area, so that scholars in the village and consequently make uninformed people can terbodohi.
Japanese occupation government to provide facilities for the independence of Indonesia by establishing BPUPKI (Investigation Agency Efforts Preparation of Indonesian Independence) and dilanjuti with PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence) and a more conical longer Nine Committee, the Committee is to formulate a Charter Jakarta on June 22, 1945. Piagram Jakarta is the highest consensus to describe the diversity of Indonesian people who are looking for a formula to live together. But the controversy is a sentence in this charter is the removal of "7 words" full liability for the run Islamic adherents are located on the fourth paragraph after the sentence by the State Ketuhan Almighty.
5. The fifth round, 20th & 21st century.
In this round the da'wah (Islamization) in Indonesia is characterized by the globalization of information influences the international Islamic movement that will effectively build up the strength of Islam more completely covering all dimensions. Actually if it was not colonized Indonesia the process of Islamization in Indonesia will take place in peace because it is culturally and structurally build strength. This is because the initial entry of Islam is humanly, can build communities dignity mostly untouchables (the lowest social structure in the kingdom) and build the local economy. History proves that the port cities (trade center), which is a city that is economically well developed cities of Islam. In other words, Islam in Indonesia does not occur when the occupation will be the region's largest and strongest Islam. Nevertheless, God has predestined in Indonesia is the largest Muslim peduduk number in the world, but it is still a big question mark if the quality is comparable to the quantity.